Religions provide guidelines to followers regarding sexual expression and regulation.  On the one hand, we can see religions as setting down ethical “don’ts” for sex.  On the other hand, many religions also have something positive to say about sex.  Many religions do teach about when and with whom it is ethical to engage in sex.  They also contain writings about homosexuality, birth control, masturbation, and pleasure.

Why do we teach about religion in this curriculum?  There are several reasons.  Although you may be practicing in a faith, many of you might not actually know what your religion teaches about sex and sexuality.  Also, you likely know a number of people from different religious backgrounds, and knowing this diversity of perspectives can help you deepen your understanding of your own religious background.  It can also help you to appreciate that there are differences in the world that guide different expressions and practices.

Schools often don’t teach about religion.  This likely comes out of the belief that teaching about a religion is the same as teaching the religion.  In the U.S., we take the separation of church (temple, mosque) and state very seriously, and anything that hints at combining these institutions comes under scrutiny.  The authors of this curriculum take the position that in this global environment, students need to understand other cultures and other religions; we believe that understanding does not threaten an individual’s beliefs or a family’s teachings.  We invite students to think more deeply and to write about their own religions as well as the religions of others.  We feel that being aware of what one’s religion advocates in terms of sexuality can only help you to make better ethical decisions, whether you agree with your religion’s teachings or not.

Religions change over time, and even within one religion, there are many variations in practices.  What’s advised in a primary text, like the bible, may no longer be what’s advised by parents or by ministers.  In this chapter our goal is for you to understand that religions change over time and to think about how your own religion and that of people you know have evolved based on changes in modern society.

There are distinct differences between Western and Eastern religions.  For example, Hinduism is very affirming of sex and sexuality.  The four goals of Hindu devotion include Dharma (virtue), Artha (financial well-being), Moksha (spiritual liberation), and Kama (pleasure).  Parapremarupa (ultimate love) is believed to bring about immortality and a lifetime of fulfillment (Howell, 2007).  Buddhists views sexuality as part of human desires, fears, needs and intentions, and they believe that people must transcend their desire for anything harmful that will lead to suffering and dissatisfaction.  In Shintoism, sexual attraction is celebrated as spiritual energy that comes from fertility.  In Western religions, you can find beautiful poetic and cultural expressions of human sexuality, as well as the assertion that sexual love should take place in the context of a monogamous, heterosexual union.

Francoeur (1999) developed a way of looking at beliefs within a religion as either “Type A” or “Type B.”  Type A sects see sex as dangerous and something to be feared.  Type B sects see sex as more positive.


Type A Features Type B Features
Evil from a “fall” Evil as a natural part of creation and growth
Redemption through identifying with a savior or through asceticism Recreation and growth
Patriarchal and sexist; Hierarchical; Clergy make decisions Egalitarian
Emphasis on one truth Recognition of other religions posing different versions of truth
Revelation has ended Ongoing revelation and change as humans participate in the creation process
Gender Roles clearly assigned Gender roles more flexible
Emphasis on laws and conformity to laws Emphasis on persons and their interrelationships
Sex is a monster that must be tamed Sex comes from a natural, creative energy


At the end of this lesson we hope that you can:

  1. Understand how religion influences how we see sex and sexuality;
  2. Make connections across religions about ethical behavior;
  3. Think about the ethical implications of certain practices and beliefs;
  4. Understand deep ethical principles that underlie many religions; and
  5. Deepen your understanding of your own religion.
Please note that the following are summaries of the positions of a select few world religions on human sexuality.  There are more than 250 religions worldwide, and some of the largest, such as Buddhism, are not yet included in this lesson.  We invite you to learn about religions that interest you, and to read the following descriptions knowing they are not inclusive of the whole spectrum of world religions.


Basic Text:

The Koran or the Qur’an, Sunna (practice, tradition) of the Prophet in the 7th century, and Shariah Law, codified in the 9th and 10th centuries

Purpose of Sex:

“According to Islam, procreation is not the sole and only purpose of marriage.  While procreation is a primary purpose, companionship and enjoyment of the spouse along with avoidance of unlawful or sinful relationships are also secondary purposes.  These secondary purposes play their own important roles in the Islamic teachings which govern sexual relations” (Ali & Mills, n. d., para. 2).

Ideas About the Body and Pleasure:

Birth control is permissible and a couple can use coitus interruptus as long as the wife is satisfied sexually.  (Remember that this is not an effective method of birth control today.)

When is Sex Wrong?

This is discussed more below in the “Other Information” section.  Also, homosexuality is condemned.  Different schools of thought recommend punishments for homosexuality that range from physical punishment to stoning.

When is Sex Right?

Some scholars who are progressive look to the Qur’an, which existed before the Shariah, and interpret that it affirms gender equality and same sex relationships if they are healthy.

Gender Roles?

The Prophet taught that the only proper context for intercourse is in a contractual relationship with a husband and wife, thus changing the idea that one’s wife was one’s property.  The Qur’an permits having up to 4 wives as long as they are treated equally.  But some feminists look to the Qur’an that says that men and women were both created by God.  The hadith of the Prophet contains a verse that says “O humanity! We have created you of a male and a female, and have made you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! The most honored of you with Allah are those who are the most God-fearing. Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware.” [Sûrah al-Hujurât: 13]

Other Information:

According to the CIDPUSA Foundation website:

“There is a Hadith which says: When anyone of you comes to his wife, let him not fall suddenly upon her, but let him speak words of love to her and then kiss each other. The Prophet said: Let none of you fall suddenly upon his wife like a lower animal. Let him send the Envoy before cohabitation. Someone asked ‘What is the Envoy O Prophet?’ He said, ‘kisses and words of love.’ . . . (it is wrong )to engage in sexual intercourse with the wife or the female who is legally permitted, without talking to her or kissing her or by being unable to restrain the ejaculation of semen before that of his wife” (para. 2).



Hinduism is the world’s third largest religion.  It is considered a henotheistic religion, which means that followers of this religion recognize one God, and view other gods and goddesses as forms or aspects of the Supreme God.  Hinduism has no one central leadership organization, but has evolved from thousands of different religious groups over time.

Basic Texts:

Hindus have many religious texts, most notably The Rig Vedas and the Bhagavat Gita.  These books exemplify a guideline to life and morality.  There are also many books such as Ramayana that tell the story of past rulers and kingdoms, most of which provide a moral lesson through its teaching.

The Kama Sutra, written by Vatsayana in 5 CE, is widely believed to be a manual for sexual behavior and discusses sexual ethics and societal rules that were prevalent at that time.  The Kama Sutra is not a religious text, and though there are many people who think it’s all about sex, this is incorrect; it is not only about sex acts.

Purpose of Sex:

Hinduism views sex as an essential and natural part of life.  It is necessary for procreation, and is even celebrated, as evidenced by carvings of sexual acts on temple walls.  However, sex can also be the root of human suffering.  The way to transcend this suffering is to either abstain from sex or indulge in it.  By indulging in sex, one can learn to detach and understand that sexual energy can be transformed into a higher form of energy for spiritual enlightenment.  Sexual desire is viewed as the ultimate of all desires.  This desire must be overcome in order to stay on the path of spiritual enlightenment.

Ideas of Pleasure and the Body:

There are two ways to overcome sexual desire: by abstaining from it, or indulging in it.  Within a marriage, sexual desire and pleasure are seen as natural and as an important obligation of human behavior.

When Sex is Wrong:

From the perspective of Hinduism, sex is wrong when it distracts you from achieving in other areas of your life.  When sex is used for enjoyment that leads to attachment to temporary earthly pleasures or interferes with the other pursuits of life, it is seen as harmful to other spiritual pursuits.

When Sex is Right:

Religiously speaking, Hindus begin life at the Brahmacharya or “student” stage, in which they are taught to learn more about education and spiritually in order to prepare themselves for a life of furthering their dharma (societal, occupational, parental, etc. duties) and karma (moral actions).  Only once they reach the Grihastya or “householder” stage can people seek kama (physical pleasure) and artha (worldly achievement, material prosperity) through their vocations.  Through marriage, husband and wife must work together to liberate one another from the bonds of unchecked sexual desire.  Sexual activity is seen as an obligatory duty for procreation, though it must take place within marriage.

Gender Roles:

Hindus believe that after death, only a son can perform the death rituals to release to soul to enter rebirth.  Due to this belief, female children are not as desired as male children, and female infanticide sometimes occurred.  Though this is now illegal and this practice is being eradicated, it has been a problem in the past.  Additionally, if husbands die before their wives, women were traditionally not allowed to inherit property, and they often became poor and homeless.  They had to give up all their earthly possessions and dedicate their lives to religious worship.  Today, Hindus in the U.S. and abroad do not necessarily follow this practice.

Other Information:

Hinduism emphasizes transcending earthly pleasures and pain.  This quote here emphasized this point:

“When the senses contact sense objects, a person experiences cold or heat, pleasure or pain. These experiences are fleeting; they come and go. Bear them patiently, Arjuna. Those who are not affected by these changes, who are the same in pleasure and pain, are truly wise and fit for immortality.  Assert your strength and realize this!” (Easwaran, 2007, p. 42)



Judaism originated in the Middle East over 3000 years ago.  It is one of the oldest monotheistic religions (belief in one god).  According to the Bible, Judaism began when God revealed to Abraham that there was only one God.  Judaism is considered to be an expression of a special, convenant relationship with God.  The texts of Judaism have influenced other religions, including Christianity, Islam, and Baha’i.  There are different denominations of Judaism (e.g. Orthodox, Conservative, Reform), each of which ascribe to different beliefs based on interpretation of Jewish texts.  Jews live throughout the world.  Currently, the greatest numbers of Jews live in Israel and the United States.

Basic Texts:

Judaism’s beliefs are based on the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and Torah, and are further explored and explained in texts such as the Talmud and the Mishnah.  Many rabbis and Jewish scholars have analyzed and interpreted these texts.

Purpose of Sex:

The primary purpose of sex is procreation.  However, sex is also encouraged when a woman cannot become pregnant and birth control is permitted.  Therefore, sex has other value beyond procreation; it also contributes to physical pleasure, emotional closeness, and commitment among married couples.

Ideas of Pleasure and the Body:

Although sex and lust are not considered sinful, they are, like thirst and hunger, considered impulses that must be controlled and channeled.  More specifically, they must be satisfied and expressed at the appropriate time, and in the appropriate place and manner.  For example, male masturbation is forbidden in the Torah.  Furthermore, sex was thought to diminish ritual purity.  Therefore, prior to receiving the Ten Commandments, Israelites had to abstain from sex and when they did have sex, couples had to engage in ritual purification.

When Sex is Wrong:

Adultery is forbidden.  In contrast, while sex outside of marriage is considered improper, it is not forbidden, although this is disputed among different Bible scholars.  Forced sex, selfish sex (without concern for the partner’s pleasure and satisfaction), or sex when drunk or angry is also considered wrong.  Whether or not the Torah and Bible forbid homosexuality is contested among different denominations.

When Sex is Right:

Within marriage, sex is a mitvah, a good deed.  However, sex is not considered only an act of physical pleasure; it is a serious act of commitment and responsibility, which is why Jews believe it should take place only within marriage.  In fact, a woman can divorce her husband and receive monetary compensation if her husband does not perform his marital duties regarding sex.  He must provide sex regularly and make sure that it is pleasurable for her.  This is a woman’s right, but not a man’s.

Gender Roles:

Women have been excluded from leadership positions and from advanced Jewish education within Judaism during most of its existence.  They also play minor roles within the Bible.  Orthodox Judaism largely maintains these traditions.  In contrast, women and men are seen as equals in Reform Judaism and Biblical figures such as Ruth and Miriam are celebrated.

Other Information:

The Talmud dictates that the minimum sexual responsibility of men to their wives differs among different professions. For example “for men of independent means, every day; for laborers, twice a week; for donkey drivers, once a week; for camel drivers, once in thirty days; for sailors, once in six months” (Talmud, K’tubot 61b).

Sex during menstruation is forbidden.  Abstaining during this period is considered necessary to maintain purity.  In addition, abstaining from sex during this period is believed to improve sex during periods in which the couple can have sex.



The Shakers are a Protestant sect that developed from the Quakers in England in 1747 and came to the United States in 1774.  Shaker communities were communal.  Members lived in dormitory style homes and typically did not marry.  Shakers tried to live their lives with perfection in everything they did, including their morality and their work.  The Shakers practiced celibacy.  New members joined the Shakers only through conversion or adoption.

The Shakers are also known for their emotional style of worship.  They would sing, dance, shout, speak in tongues, and tremble demonstratively.  They believed that individuals could find and communicate with God within themselves, rather than through religious clergy or rituals.  Some believe that this style of worship served as an emotional release for Shakers.  The Shakers also believed that salvation was only possible through repeated confession of sins.  Today, only a handful of Shakers are still alive in Maine.

Basic Texts:

Given the importance of song in their religion, the Shakers have many hymn books with thousands of songs, in addition to the Bible.

Purpose of Sex:

Shakers believe sex is a sin.  They interpreted Adam and Eve’s story in the Bible as one about the sins of sexual behaviors.

Ideas of Pleasure and the Body:

Lust and sexual pleasure are considered sins and a distraction from God.

When Sex is Wrong:

Shakers believe that all sexual intercourse, including sex for procreation purposes, is a moral sin.  Through celibacy, Shakers could attempt to live like Jesus Christ.

When Sex is Right:


Gender Roles:

The Shakers believe that all human beings are God’s children and are equal regardless of sex, race, education, or wealth.  Therefore, although Shakers largely segregated women and men, the Shaker religion valued women and men equally.  Women have served as the head of the Shaker society and God is considered to have both male and female attributes.  Like many other societies, women did the housework and men worked outside of the home.  However, the Shakers recognize the equal value in women and men’s work.

More Information:

The Shakers are known for their beautiful, simple furniture.  It is believed that their attempts to live perfection, their work ethic, and their ingenuity contributed to the beauty of their furniture.



Christian beliefs center on the life of Jesus of Nazareth as the son of God.  Christianity is currently the world’s largest religion, though there are many different sects of Christianity that hold different beliefs or have different religious practices.

Basic Texts:

Christians’ beliefs are based on the Bible, which is made up of the Old and New Testament.  The Old Testament is made up of five books which are also used in the Jewish religion.  The New Testament, made up of four gospels, discusses the life and death of Jesus, as well as his teachings.  Additionally, the New Testament includes letters from church leaders, and in particular letters from Paul, who described views on marriage and sex.

Purpose of Sex:

Christians see sex as a gift from God and as a means of glorifying Him.  They also see sex as necessary for procreation, intimacy, comfort, and physical pleasure, though sex only has these purposes within marriage.  Sex outside of marriage is looked down upon, though some Christian groups no longer take such a strict view.

Ideas of Pleasure and the Body:

Sex renews the bond of marriage and leads to procreation.  However, there are some sects of Christianity that believe sex should be only for procreation, not for pleasure.

When Sex is Wrong:

Many Christians believe that the Bible teaches that sex is wrong outside of marriage.  For some, prohibition includes having lustful thoughts about someone other than your spouse.

When Sex is Right:

Sex is permitted within the bonds of a marriage that is sanctioned by the Church.  There are no clear rules about what is acceptable within the marriage bed, and different communities have different ideas about this.

Gender Roles:

Beliefs about the roles of women and men have varied greatly over time.  The Bible has traditionally placed women in a submissive role in marriage and within the ministry (church leadership).  However, this has changed and has evolved differently in different sects of Christianity.  Some churches, though not all of them, now encourage women to be ministers and leaders of the church.  Additionally, women’s role in marriage has also changed, and some churches encourage women and men to see themselves as equals.

Other Information:

There has been a lot of discussion in Christianity, politics, and the media about same-sex marriage.  There is a difference between marriage in the church and marriage in legal terms which is recognized by the government.  Though most Christian groups do not accept same sex marriages, there are some Christian communities who do accept same sex couples and who sanction same-sex marriages.


Contributed by Renee Randazzo


Paganism today is a blending of ideas and practices from many different religious and spiritual traditions and is therefore difficult to define. Nonetheless, its influence can be felt in the counterculture of the United States in various forms including goddess spirituality, Wicca, and things borrowed from Native American spiritual traditions, and often as a mix of these and other nature-based spiritual systems. The contemporary Pagan movement, sometimes referred to as NeoPaganism, began in 1951 and was joined in the 1960s by threads of the women’s movement, the sexual revolution, and other counter-cultural trends. Paganism generally holds a positive view of sexuality. Sexual acts, when consensual, are considered healthy and even sacred.

Basic Texts:

Because Paganism borrows from multiple traditions and varies widely across its community, there is no single primary text that outlines its principles. Pagan texts speak of the great power of sexuality to express liberation, celebrate earthly embodiment, and reflect the natural wonder of creation. The balance of the masculine and feminine aspects of the divine are central to many Pagan rituals, and it is said that “All acts of love and pleasure are… rituals” of the Great Goddess (Hunter, 2004).

Purpose of Sex:

In NeoPagan communities and traditions, sexual energy and sexual activity can have many purposes. In addition to procreative purposes, sex for the purposes of pleasure, celebration, and worship are viewed as good and moral. Sexual energy can be used in ceremonial contexts to honor nature, appreciate the human body in all its forms, and to raise energy toward a specific intention.

Ideas of Pleasure and the Body:

Paganism is unique in its view of the body in that it is viewed as a sacred microcosm (a mini-replica) of the Universe itself, capable of encompassing divine energies. The human body can be a place of worship, and is not at odds with transcendence or the spiritual. Pleasure is considered a birthright and is celebrated.

When Sex is Wrong:

In Paganism, sex is wrong when it is predatory or coercive. Non-monogamous practices, such as polyamory and swinging, are tolerated as long as activities are consensual among all participants and nobody is being deceived.

When Sex is Right:

In the modern NeoPagan community, sex is right whenever it is consensual among adults. This can include during festivals, in small gatherings, as well as in private settings. Sex can be rightly used for ritual, as an expression of love or tenderness toward a partner, for procreation, or for simple pleasure.

Gender Roles:

Paganism generally endorses feminism and accepts a liberal view of gender roles. In most segments of the Pagan community, men and women are seen as true equals. The two sexes are often considered for the complementary features, but typically neither is privileged over the other. There are exceptions, such as the Dianic tradition, which privileges the feminine divine over the masculine divine in an attempt to compensate for and heal from centuries of patriarchy.

Native American Religions

Contributed by Renee Randazzo


Traditional Native American religions exhibit much diversity, largely because different tribes lived in different places throughout the continent for thousands of years. Beliefs and practices, therefore, vary widely among different tribes who were often isolated from one another. Additionally, the concept of “religion,” which institutionalizes spirituality, is not always relevant in Native American cultures, which consider the spiritual to be a personal and experiential component of daily life. Spirituality among indigenous populations emphasizes each individual’s private relationships between the self, the community, and the environment. Because no definitive statement can be made about “all Native American religions” view of sexuality, we encourage you to research the specific cultures of tribal communities in your region.

Basic Texts:

There is no single or primary set of basic texts that describe Native American religions because beliefs differed among various tribes and information was passed down orally. Much of the information about the sexuality of indigenous people was written under conditions of exploitation and gross misinterpretation by mostly non-Native scholars, and its accuracy is extremely questionable.

Purpose of Sex:

In general, sex within Native American communities took place for the purposes of procreation and pleasure and was not considered shameful. Children were often exposed to sex because families and tribes lived together in small dwellings. Sex was considered a natural part of life.

Gender Roles:

Native American communities often divided labor by gender, although in some tribes all skills were taught to both boys and girls. In most indigenous American Indian religious worldviews, women were and are seen as representations of the female aspect of the divine: not inferior or superior to but in balance with the male aspect (Machacek, 2003). Native American cultures are often noted within contemporary queer studies for the unique acceptance of gender variance in people called “Two Spirit.” Two Spirit people are those who mixed gender roles by wearing the clothing and performing the work associated with both men and women. “Two-spirited” or “two-spirit” usually indicates a person whose body simultaneously houses a masculine spirit and a feminine spirit (Machacek, 2003).



The word Sikh means a learner, a student, who gets instruction from a teacher, who is called a Guru.  The personality of the Sikh Guru is so influential that it completely transforms the disciple and shapes his life to diviner issues.  This is achieved not by personal and physical instruction, but by the belief that the Sikh incorporates the Guru.  The Sikh “fills himself with ‘The Guru’ and then feels himself linked up to an inexhaustible source of power” (Mansukhani, 2007, p. 47).


Sikhism affirms the omnipotence of God and consequently modifies the concept of Karma.  Man is not a helpless puppet.  The course of fate may be compared to the flow of a river, while individual action may look like a whirlpool or a wave.

The scientific concept of cause and effect, action and reaction, is called the law of Karma(in religious parlance). A man reaps what he sows.

Just as our present life is the result of our past Karma, the present Karma will determine our future life.  Karma operates in this life and successive ones.  The law of Karma does not cease to operate after death, because death is just a matter of physical disintegration.  It has no effect on the soul, which survives.

Discussion of Themes Across Religions:

For Teachers: Have students go out and research their religion by talking to a leader in their place of worship, talking to their parents, or doing library research.  Teachers should shape this assignment according to the ability to do such work in their community.  Students may choose to research a religion that’s not their own.  Students can also be split into groups and research a religion and its sexual ethics together.  They can be given sheets beforehand with these questions or asked these questions when they come together in class.

Transcending the Body:

Many religions talk about transcending the body.   When they do it’s often because body and spirit (soul) are seen as separate, with the spirit being closer to God.

  • What are the benefits or concerns with seeing the body and soul as separate?  Is the body impure?
  • Are gender role differences likely to come from body differences?  That is, if women, for example, have less authority in society or in the family, does it come from the fact that they menstruate?
  • Some religions emphasize virginity.  Have you heard of the saying “your body is a temple”?  Why is virginity important?  What makes the “virgin birth” in Christianity important?
  • Some religions ask devout followers to fast or give up bodily pleasures such as food.  Why is that?
  • Is celibacy important for members of your religion?  Why?  What does it mean?
  • Why do some coaches tell their players not to have sex before a big game?  Is there any truth in what they say?


Many religions talk about obtaining some form of ecstasy.  This can be an overwhelming feeling of peace and oneness with God or it can take the form of feeling God within one’s body.

  • What do you know of “ecstasy” from your readings?
  • Can people be “possessed” by good or evil?
  • Can they feel the God within them?
  • Does this relate to sexuality in some way?

Seriousness of Sex:

Most religions take sex very seriously.

  • Why is that so?
  • What are some of the obligations around sex that you found in the religion you researched?

Matching Game:

Match each of the quotes below with one of the religions about which you learned in this chapter.

  1. “That man is disciplined and happy who can prevail over the turmoil that springs from desire and anger, here on earth, before he leaves his body.”
  2. And if a man should lie with a woman with seed of copulation, then they shall bathe themselves in water
  3. “Her food, her clothing, and her conjugal rights he shall not diminish.”
  4. Jesus said: “You have heard that the law of Moses says, ‘Do not commit adultery.’ 28 But I say, anyone who even looks at a woman with lust in his eye has already committed adultery with her in his heart. 29 So if your eye – even if it is your good eye – causes you to lust, gouge it out and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to be thrown into hell. 30 And if your hand – even if it is your stronger hand – causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to be thrown into.”
  5. “Let My worship be in the heart that rejoices, for behold, all acts of love and pleasure are My rituals.”
  6. “A young husband should enjoy sexual intercourse with his wife once every four days. To preserve the character of the wife, this may be increased or decreased. Sexual intercourse with the wife at the time of her menstruation is unlawful. However, it is lawful to enjoy her without sexual intercourse e.g. enjoy the region beneath the petticoat, or if there be such a need, even use the wife’s hand for his ejaculation and stop short of actual copulation [in Arabic terminology, this is known as jima' bil yad, which means 'intercourse by hand.'] God says: “Your wives are a tilth unto you; so go to your tilth when and how you will.” A man may keep company with his wife during her menstrual period for eating, resting/sleeping [without copulation] or other purposes. He is not obliged to avoid her.”


  1. Hinduism  Bhagavad Gita 5.23
  2. (Lev. 15: 18) Judaism
  3. (Exod. 21: 10) Judaism
  4. Matthew Chapter 5 (NLT)
  5. Paganism: Charge of the Goddess
  6. Islam


Ali, S. M., & Mills, R. (n. d.).  Sex in Islam: It’s role and purpose.  Retrieved June 30 from http://www.zawaj.com/articles/sex_mumtaz.html

CIDPUSA Foundation, (n. d.).  Sexual etiquette in marriage.  Retrieved June 30 from http://www.cidpusa.org/sexual_etiquette_in_marriage.htm

Easwaran, E. (Ed. & Trans.) (2007).  The bhagavad gita.  Canada: The Blue Mountain Center of Meditation.

Francoeur, R. T. (1999).  General character and ramifications of American religious perspectives on sexuality.  In P. B. Koch & D. W. Weis (Eds.), Sexuality in America, (pp. 18-28).  New York, NY: The Continuum Publishing Company.

Howell, J. W. (Ed.). (2007).  The Greenwood encyclopedia of love, courtship, and sexuality throughout history. Greenwood.

Hunter, Jennifer. (2004) Rites of Pleasure: Sexuality in Wicca and NeoPaganism. New York: Citadel Press.

Machacek, David W. and Wilcox, Melissa M., ed. (2003) Sexuality and the World’s Religions. ABC-CLIO, Inc.

Mansukhani, G. S. (2007).  Introduction to Sikhism.  New Delhi: Hemkunt Press.

Williams, W. L. (1990) Indians of North America, in Dynes, W. R. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. New York & London: Garland Publ. Inc. Vol. I, p593-5

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