In our discussions about consent, we reviewed philosophical thinking about autonomy and human rights. Respecting someone’s autonomy means respecting someone as an individual with different views and wants as well as respecting their ability to make choices with regard to what they do in this world. As we’ll discuss later on when we talk about prostitution, some philosophers add to this idea that we need to respect a person as an end and not as a means to an end. This idea means that to be good and do good in the world, we can’t use other people for our own goals and desires. In cases of sexual assault, from sexual harassment to rape, this is exactly what perpetrators do to victims; they use them as a means to an end, their own sexual pleasure and power.
Coercion and Hume
There are other ways of looking at what’s wrong about nonconsensual sex. Consider Philosopher David Hume (1711-1776). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy calls him “the most important philosopher ever to write in English.” He wrote that a person couldn’t come to a moral decision by reason alone, but rather that they needed to look at the relations between people. He argued we needed SENTIMENT and that we use sentiment to make moral decisions. He claimed that no matter how selfish human beings appear to be, we can also at times see in their actions instances of benevolence towards others, times when human beings put others’ needs before their own. He even argued that justice was not natural for humans (and that’s why we need laws and rules), whereas benevolence comes naturally to animals as well as humans. Feelings of benevolence are what make us want to be just and make sure that our laws take care of others, not just ourselves. Benevolence is a social virtue that moves us to consider more than just ourselves and our own benefit.
Hume (1912) also talked about 3 different people: the moral agent (the one who acts); the receiver (the one who is affected by the action); and the spectator (the one who looks on and approves or disapproves). When it comes to sexual harassment and even rape, we are all included within these three groups. Maybe a few of us are perpetrators, but many of your friends and family have been victims of sexual abuse, sexual harassment, and rape. We have all probably been in the role of the spectator, if not to an actual act of abuse, then to the small acts that lead up to it and show approval for it, as well as to the gossip, media presentations, and other forms of sharing about this kind of violence.
The role of the spectator is important because it’s within this role that the natural emotion of sympathy arises. Feeling this emotion then sparks moral approval or disapproval. That is, it is our natural sympathy for the victim in an act that leads us to express moral disapproval of what the perpetrator did. We don’t usually reason it out and say “that’s unfair” or “he violated her rights,” although those would often be fair assessments. Instead, Hume suggests that we feel sympathetic for the plight of the victim and this leads us to feel disapproval and even outrage. Conversely, he argues that every act done out of a natural virtue like benevolence will bring up moral approval in the hearts of spectators.
Let’s read a little of Hume’s (1912) Of Self Love, and then examine the relationship between sympathy and acts of sexual coercion like harassment and rape.
In these beginning excerpts he argues against the idea that everything we do is for selfish reasons.
“There is a principle, supposed to prevail among many, which is utterly incompatible with all virtue or moral sentiment; and as it can proceed from nothing but the most depraved disposition, so in its turn it tends still further to encourage that depravity. This principle is, that all benevolence is mere hypocrisy, friendship a cheat, public spirit a farce, fidelity a snare to procure trust and confidence; and that, while all of us, at bottom, pursue only our private interest, we wear these fair disguises, in order to put others off their guard, and expose them the more to our wiles and machinations. What heart one must be possessed of who professes such principles, and who feels no internal sentiment that belies so pernicious a theory, it is easy to imagine: And also, what degree of affection and benevolence he can bear to a species, whom he represents under such odious colors, and supposes so little susceptible of gratitude or any return of affection. Or if we should not ascribe these principles wholly to a corrupted heart, we must, at least, account for them from the most careless and precipitate examination. Superficial reasoners, indeed, observing many false pretences among mankind, and feeling, perhaps, no very strong restraint in their own disposition, might draw a general and a hasty conclusion, that all is equally corrupted, and that men, different from all other animals, and indeed from all other species of existences, admit of no degrees of good or bad, but are, in every instance, the same creatures under different disguises and appearances.
There is another principle, somewhat resembling the former; which has been much insisted on by philosophers, and has been the foundation of many a system; that, whatever affection one may feel, or imagine he feels for others, no passion is, or can be disinterested; that the most generous friendship, however sincere, is a modification of self-love; and that, even unknown to ourselves, we seek only our own gratification, while we appear the most deeply engaged in schemes for the liberty and happiness of mankind. By a turn of imagination, by a refinement of reflection, by an enthusiasm of passion, we seem to take part in the interests of others, and imagine ourselves divested of all selfish considerations: But, at bottom, the most generous patriot and most niggardly miser, the bravest hero and most abject coward, have, in every action, an equal regard to their own happiness and welfare.”
Hume then answers:
“Love between the sexes begets a complacency and good-will, very distinct from the gratification of an appetite. Tenderness to their offspring, in all sensible beings, is commonly able alone to counter-balance the strongest motives of self-love, and has no manner of dependence on that affection. What interest can a fond mother have in view, who loses her health by assiduous attendance on her sick child, and afterwards languishes and dies of grief, when freed, by its death, from the slavery of that attendance?
…These and a thousand other instances are marks of a general benevolence in human nature, where no real interest binds us to the object.”
Hume begs us to consider why these acts that are clearly useful to society please us? Is it because we depend on society? Or is there another reason? He states:
“…there is some benevolence, however small, infused into our bosom; some spark of friendship for the human kind’. These altruistic or generous sentiments, however weak they may be, are at least sufficiently strong to lead us to prefer that which is ‘useful and serviceable to mankind, above what is pernicious and dangerous.”
Hume also believes that these sentiments are universal. It is the universal “principle of humanity” that is the foundation of morals. Sentiments are the same for all humans and produce in all of us the same moral assessments.
In this unit, we will look at what defines our natural sentiment of sympathy for a victim and what it is in our society that might desensitize us to the harm done by unwanted sex, sexual harassment, sex under pressure, exploitative sex, and even rape. What conditions do we impose on these categories of acts that undermine our natural inclination to hate all of these acts? What conditions undermine the fact that these acts go against people’s right to be respected and ignore their autonomy? How can we have sympathy when we know that these acts hurt other people and, in general, we don’t like to see other people hurt?
Exercise: Benevolence versus Justice
For each of the acts below, write out specific reasoning that speaks to why you think the act is wrong. Write down your answers and then discuss whether your primary concern is one of unfairness or unjustness of the act or the lack of benevolence.
What bothers you most about the following acts? Why is it wrong?
1. Sexual abuse of children is wrong because . . .
2. Sexual harassment by a peer in a high school is wrong because . . .
3. Pressuring someone to have sex with you is wrong because . . .
4. Having sex with someone who is drunk is wrong because . . .
5. Having sex with someone who is 5 years younger than you is wrong because. . .
6. Rape is wrong because . . .
Exercise and Discussion: Coercive Offers and Coercive Conditions
Consider the following questions:
- Why might it be hard for a girl to say no to a boy?
- Why might it be hard for a boy to say no to a girl?
- Why might it be hard for a boy to say no to a boy?
- Why might it be hard for a girl to say no to a girl?
- What does gender have to do with it?
Philosopher Alan Wertheimer (2003) gives some cases in which varying degrees of coercion are present. Below are some cases we would like you to think about. Please feel free to rewrite them so that you can consider them from a number of gender perspectives. You decide if each situation is fair or unfair and discuss why you feel that way.
- A boy promises girl a diamond bracelet or pendant if she will have sex
- A boy promises girl a diamond bracelet or pendant but knows that it will only be cubic zirconium
- One person promises to love the other forever if she or he has sex
- A boy threatens that he will end the relationship with his boyfriend if he doesn’t have sex with him
- A girl says to a boy that she’ll break up with her boyfriend if this boy, not her boyfriend, spends the night with her – then she doesn’t follow through with breaking up with her boyfriend when the other boys spends the night
- A girl tells a boy who is not her boyfriend that she broke up with her boyfriend even though she didn’t in order to have sex with him that night
- A girl gets angry with her girlfriend when she says she won’t have sex with her
- A boy has spent a lot of money on a girl to take her to prom and a night out. Is there some coercion present for her to give back sexually?
- A girl is really down in the dumps, with low self-esteem, has been crying all night, and hates herself. If a boy has sex with this girl, is he taking advantage of her?
- A girl keeps “throwing herself at him,” licking his ear, wearing tops that are tighter and tighter, sometimes hugging him without his asking, and wearing low cut shirts bending over purposely to give him a view. Is this an offer or a coercive offer? An offer he can’t refuse? Why or why not?
- A boy tells a boy to have sex with him or he’ll tell the principal he cheated on the SAT test.
- A boy threatens to “out” another boy unless he has sex with him.
What’s a threat?
What’s a coercive offer?
What is fraud or concealment?
What is an issue of competence to consent?
With regard to offers?
Is it still coercive if the person could only benefit by saying yes but is no worse off if he or she says no?
How coercive are each of these example? In each circumstance, if a person consents to sex, is it consensual, coercive, or somewhere in between? Why?
Take #1 and think now if the girl is from a rich family versus a poor one. Does that change your mind about whether there was coercion? What if the girl in #1 has plenty of jewelry but the girl in #2 has never had anyone ever buy her jewelry, works at the grocery store after school and all weekend, and gives her paycheck to her mom, buying nothing for herself?
What are the differences to you between #1 and #2?
Regarding #3: Many people say that by now everyone should know not to trust promises of love. Is that a fair expectation? Should a girl know better?
Regarding #6: Is it the guy’s responsibility to be suspicious that she might be lying? What if he never finds out that she was lying because the couple actually do break up a couple weeks later? Was she still wrong to have lied? Was it still coercive sex?
Regarding #8: Is seduction different from coercion? How? What do people do to seduce? What’s morally permissible in seduction? What’s not?
Let’s consider some other examples of unequal relationships or power:
- Someone offers to give someone a million dollars for sex. Is that wrong?
- The president comes on to an intern
- A famous rock singer comes on to a groupie
- A woman marries a man for his money, knowing she’ll have sex with him in exchange for the perks of being a trophy wife
Defining Acts of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault
Sexual Harassment can refer to putting pressure on someone to have sex, aggressive behaviors such as groping, coercing a person emotionally, or using language that demeans a person because of their sex. In a legal sense it means that someone is interfering with another person’s right to work or learn in a safe environment. Have you seen this happen at your school? There is a law against “quid pro quo” sexual harassment, like when an unscrupulous teacher might offer to exchange a good grade for a sex act. There is also a law against “hostile environment” sexual harassment, where words, pictures, or acts in the school or workplace that are sexually demeaning to one sex make it more difficult for a person to work there. That is, it interferes with their equal right to a non-hostile workplace.
The FLASH (Family Life and Sexual Health) curriculum (2006) describes a Continuum of Touch. This continuum progresses as follows:
- Touch that both parties consent to
- Touch that includes persuasion, but that the other person consents to
- Sex that occurs when a person is pressured
- Sex that can be considered assault, but cannot quite be considered rape
Sexual touch that is mutually consensual refers to the things people do when they make out. Through mutual consent, people learn what the other person likes and what sex means to them, so it works best when the two people like, care about, and trust each other.
Consent that includes persuasion is different. It occurs when someone isn’t sure about what they want to do and the other person persuades them to do it anyway. As long as the persuader is respectful and not coercive, he or she is willing to take “no” for an answer, and the persuader cares about the other person’s feelings, then there’s nothing unfair about persuading.
Sex under pressure is where we start to get into tricky territory. It’s the beginning of exploitation and usually means one person is not listening to or caring about how the other person feels. This could include making a promise he or she has no intention of keeping or trading sex for something else, like the diamond necklace we read about in the scenarios earlier. It could even include threatening a person. Sometimes sex under pressure occurs when someone begs and begs and begs, just wearing the person down. None of this is fair. From Humes perspective, it’s also not very benevolent, because it doesn’t take into consideration the feelings of the other person and how the other person might get hurt by agreeing to do something they really don’t want to do. From a rights or contract perspective, one could say, “Hey, she agreed to it. It’s her fault for giving in. A person has a right to put as much pressure as they want on another person and it’s the other person who should say no if she means no.” From a perspective of benevolence, one would say it was wrong to keep pressuring for one’s own wants and needs, regardless of how it may affect another person.
Sexual assault that is just short of rape could mean sexual abuse, like when an adult touches a child or teen sexually (on their private parts) but doesn’t actually penetrate the child or teen. Unwanted grabbing, poking, groping, and/or physically forcing someone into sexual touching is again, even between peers, sexual assault. Sometimes playful sexual touching, like a pat on the butt or breast, may seem to a person that they are just joking around, but it can also feel like an attack. Think about the larger world before you pat or poke, and know that many a person has been patted and poked in scary and humiliating ways. While you may mean it to be joking around, to do something like that might feel like something different to the one being patted or poked. From a perspective of caring and benevolence, a person needs to be aware of how that touch may feel to the other person.
Rape is a kind of sexual assault that involves penetration that is oral, anal, or vaginal. It doesn’t matter if the person used physical force, threats, emotional language, or put-downs to make it happen. It doesn’t matter if the two people know each other or not or whether they had a relationship in the past. It also doesn’t matter if the people had been engaged in sexual touching and then one person changed his or her mind.
Fantasy Versus Reality
In real life, coercive sexual activity, ranging from pressuring a partner to physical assault, is highly problematic and often very damaging. And at the same time, it is important to understand that there is a difference between fantasy and real life. Sexual fantasies happen and take many forms. In fantasies, coercion does sometimes play a part, as in romance novels where the woman is “swept off her feet,” for example. Some theorists have noted that fantasies of coercion are indeed common, even among women, and have hypothesized that there are reasons for this which do NOT reflect a woman desiring the actual loss of her autonomy. Some hypothesize that, because female desire is so often taboo, fantasies of coercion may be among the few ways a woman will allow herself to feel sexual. And because men are so pressured to enact masculinity, men may feel that pressuring a partner is the way he is “supposed” to act out his sexual desires. And while fantasies of coercion are common, they can also elicit a great deal of confusion and shame, which we’ll discuss in more length in another chapter. One might question whether his or her sexual fantasies are unhealthy or place him or her at risk for coercive sexual situations in real life. How do you think fantasy affects reality? How are our fantasies shaped by the realities of our cultural attitudes about sex and gender? Can fantasy be a “safe space” for exploration of desires?
Coercion and Consent
Of course consent is important, but the law does not require that a woman state a lack of consent in order to prove that some act was rape or a sexual assault. That would unfairly put the burden on the woman instead of the man, or the victim instead of the perpetrator, to say no. That assumes that a perpetrator has a natural access to someone’s body unless she or he says no.
We discussed that there is an environment in our culture that may support rape. Some of that comes from the media and the constant showing of rape on TV and in movies. While these shows are against rape, the way they depict rape and sexual abuse may not be the best way to encourage people’s natural benevolence towards those who have been hurt. Read each of these myths and describe why you think people have come to believe them.
- Attractive people are more likely to be raped than unattractive people.
- A prostitute can’t be raped. But if she is “raped,” then it harms her less than another woman.
- If a heterosexual guy is sexually assaulted or molested, and he gets an erection, he is probably a little bit gay.
- If a woman goes back to the apartment of a man on their first date, she is showing a willingness to have sex.
- If a woman truly didn’t consent, she would have fought her rapist.
- It’s the girl’s responsibility to say no.
- If a woman has a fantasy of being tied up or being raped, it probably means that secretly or unconsciously she would like to be raped.
- Quite a few women lie about being raped to get someone in trouble.
- If a woman gets drunk at a party, it’s still her responsibility to say no. If she gets raped, it’s partially her fault.
- A girl who is stuck up and thinks she’s too good for most guys deserves to be taught a lesson.
- In most rapes, the girl is experienced and has “been around.”
- If a girl is too scared to say no and then a guy has sex with her, then it’s not rape.
- A gay guy can’t be raped.
- It’s fair for a newspaper article to point out that the victim was wearing high heels and a mini-skirt.
- Good students are probably unlikely to rape.
- It’s a girl’s responsibility to take a self-defense course so that she can better protect herself against rape.
Reading and Discussion: Philosophical Dilemmas of Harm and Rape
Is it possible that someone could be sexually abused or raped and not harmed? If it is, then is rape less wrong when committed against that person? Why or why not?
What makes rape and sexually abuse ESPECIALLY harmful? Is it more harmful than working for years in a sweatshop where one is denied education, nutrition, opportunities, and where the working conditions are horrible? Does it make sense to make such a comparison?
Given sexual joking and flirting are ways that people in our society figure out if they like someone or if someone likes them, how does a person know where to draw the line? What is considered sexual harassment, and what is considered just joking around? How can one be sure what category an action falls under?
Read the following excerpts from the Office of Civil Rights regarding sexual harassment. An entire pamphlet of related information can be found here on the Office of Civil Rights website.
Sexual Harassment: It’s Not Academic
Retrieved from http://library.findlaw.com/1997/Aug/27/127484.html
“First of all, let me say that being sexually harassed since 5th grade has gone beyond the damage of affecting the way I feel…. Now…I have no pride, no self- confidence, and still no way out of the [misery] I am put through in my school.”
Sexual harassment of students is a real and serious problem in education at all levels, including elementary and secondary schools as well as colleges and universities. It can affect any student, regardless of sex, race, or age. Sexual harassment can threaten a student’s physical or emotional well-being, influence how well a student does in school, and make it difficult for a student to achieve his or her career goals. Moreover, sexual harassment is illegal–Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX) prohibits sex discrimination, including sexual harassment. Preventing and remedying sexual harassment in schools is essential to ensure nondiscriminatory, safe environments in which students can learn.
A…student should feel safe and comfortable walking down the halls of his or her school. School is a place for learning and growing. Sexual harassment stops that process.
. . .
TITLE IX AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT
Title IX protects students from unlawful sexual harassment in all of a school s programs or activities, whether they take place in the facilities of the school, on a school bus, at a class or training program sponsored by the school at another location, or elsewhere. Title IX protects both male and female students from sexual harassment, regardless of who the harasser is.
Sexual harassment can take two forms: quid pro quo and hostile environment.
Quid pro quo harassment occurs when a school employee causes a student to believe that he or she must submit to unwelcome sexual conduct in order to participate in a school program or activity. It can also occur when an employee causes a student to believe that the employee will make an educational decision based on whether or not the student submits to unwelcome sexual conduct. For example, when a teacher threatens to fail a student unless the student agrees to date the teacher, it is quid pro quo harassment.
“Dear Beth: I’m 18 and in high school. I have this really cute math teacher….One day he asked me to a fancy restaurant to talk about my grades. He just kept telling me how beautiful I was and asked if I could come over to his house next week…he told me it would bring up my grades. I get very bad grades in math….What should I do?”
It does not matter whether the student refuses to submit to the teacher’s demands and suffers the threatened harm, or does what the teacher wants and thus avoids the harm. In both cases, the harassment by the school employee is unlawful.
“The financial aid officer made it clear that I could get the money I needed if I slept with him.”
Hostile environment harassment occurs when unwelcome sexually harassing conduct is so severe, persistent, or pervasive that it affects a student’s ability to participate in or benefit from an education program or activity, or creates an intimidating, threatening or abusive educational environment. A hostile environment can be created by a school employee,  another student,  or even someone visiting the school, such as a student or employee from another school.
Regardless of which type of harassment occurs, a school must take immediate and appropriate steps to stop it and prevent it from happening again. The judgment and common sense of teachers and administrators are important elements of any response. However, the school is responsible for taking all reasonable steps to ensure a safe learning environment.
“There were two or three boys touching me…and I’d tell them to stop but they wouldn’t. This went on for…months. Finally I was in one of my classes when all of them came back and backed me into a corner and started touching me all over…. After the class I told the principal, and he and the boys had a little talk. And after the talk was up, the boys came out laughing because they got no punishment.”
Under federal law, a school is required to have a policy against sex discrimination and notify employees, students, and elementary and secondary school parents of the policy. A policy against sex discrimination, particularly one that specifically addresses sexual harassment, is an extremely important method for preventing sexual harassment. Such a policy lets students, parents, and employees know that sexual harassment will not be tolerated.
If a school does not have a sexual harassment policy in place, students (and/or parents) can meet with the principal, dean, or other administrator to ask that he or she develop one. The students should remind the school official that the school has an obligation under the law to stop sexual harassment.
A school is also required to adopt and publish grievance procedures for resolving sex discrimination complaints, including complaints of sexual harassment. Good procedures provide an effective means for promptly and appropriately responding to sexual harassment complaints. Finally, a school is required to have at least one employee responsible for coordinating efforts to comply with Title IX.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Q: What are some examples of sexual conduct?
A: Some examples of sexual conduct are:
- sexual advances
- touching of a sexual nature
- graffiti of a sexual nature
- displaying or distributing of sexually explicit drawings, pictures and written materials
- sexual gestures
- sexual or “dirty” jokes
- pressure for sexual favors
- touching oneself sexually or talking about one’s sexual activity in front of others
- spreading rumors about or rating other students as to sexual activity or performance.
Not all physical conduct would be considered sexual in nature. Some examples are a high school athletic coach hugging a student who made a goal, a kindergarten teacher’s consoling hug for a child with a skinned knee, or one student’s demonstration of a sports move requiring contact with another student.
Q: Must sexual conduct be unwelcome in order to be sexual harassment?
A: Yes. Conduct is unwelcome if the student does not request or invite the conduct, and views it as offensive or undesirable. However, just because a student does not immediately speak out or complain does not mean that the sexual conduct was welcome. A student might feel that objecting would only result in increasing the harassing conduct. Sometimes, students feel intimidated by the conduct and/or feel too embarrassed, confused or fearful to complain or resist. Also, a student who willingly participates in conduct on one occasion may later decide that the same conduct on a subsequent occasion has become unwelcome.
It is difficult to say “no” to a teacher, coach…and the “popular” kids. A person who complains about sexual harassment is often rejected by other kids and labeled a troublemaker.
Both parents and school officials should encourage students to speak out and complain about unwelcome sexual conduct–to the harasser, to a school employee, or to a parent. Using age-appropriate methods, parents and school officials should let students know that they should not tolerate unwanted sexual conduct.
Q: Does all sexual conduct create a sexually hostile environment?
A: No. Although even one incident of quid pro quo harassment (for example, threatening to fail a student) is unlawful, generally, a hostile environment may be created by a series of incidents. So, for example, a sexual joke, even if offensive to the student to whom it was told, will not by itself create a sexually hostile environment. However, a sexual assault or other severe single incident can create a hostile environment.
Q: When does sexual conduct create a sexually hostile environment?
A: In order to answer this question several factors must be considered. Did the student view the environment as hostile? Was it reasonable for the student to view the environment as hostile? All relevant circumstances should be considered, including the following:
- the nature of the conduct
- how often the conduct occurred
- how long the conduct continued
- the age and sex of the student
- whether the conduct adversely affected the student’s education or educational environment
- whether the alleged harasser was in a position of power over the student subjected to the harassment
- the number of alleged harassers
- the age of the alleged harasser
- where the harassment occurred
- other incidents of sexual harassment at the school involving the same or other students.
These thoughts and feelings are warning signals of sexual harassment. They can alert you to the possibility that you are being sexually harassed. Feelings: confused, guilty, helpless, angry, frightened, hopeless, scared and alone. Thoughts: I can’t believe this is happening to me. Why Me? What did I do? I hate you for doing this. If I say anything, everyone will think I’m crazy.
- Stein, Nan, Marshall, L. Troop, R., Harassment in the Halls (Massachusetts: Center for Research on Women, Wellesley College, 1993)
- Stein, N. & Sjostram, Lisa, Flirting or Hurting? A Teacher s Guide on Student to Student Sexual Harassment in Schools (Washington, D.C.: NEA Professional Library Publication, 1994) 66.
- Winship, Beth, Ask Beth (San Francisco Chronicle, March 2, 1997).
- Miranda, L., & Associates, Inc., interviews (1981).
- Although sexual harassment of employees may violate Title IX, this pamphlet addresses only sexual harassment of students.
- In Texas, Mississippi, and Louisiana, Title IX s prohibition on sexual harassment of one student by another has been affected by a federal decision covering these states. If you live in these one of these states and have been harassed or seek further information, please contact OCR s Dallas office for clarification.
- Stein, Harassment 10. Most of the quotes contained in this pamphlet are from real life situations. These situations may or may not constitute unlawful sexual harassment, depending on all of the facts in each particular case. The perspectives reflected are intended to raise the awareness of students, school officials, and parents and indicate when it may be time to become concerned, speak up, and/or gather more information to determine an appropriate course of action.
- Stein, Flirting 8.
- Strauss, S., Sexual Harassment of Teenagers: It s Not Fun/It s Illegal (Minnesota Department of Education, 1981) 35.
- Morris, B., Terpstra, T., Croninger, B., Linn, E. Tune In To Your Rights (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1985) 8.
Hume, D. (1912). Of self love, Reprint of the 1777 edition. Released as an EBook on Jan. 12, 2010 [EBook #4320]. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/4320/4320-h/4320-h.htm#2H_APPE2
Public Health, Seattle and King County (2006). Family Life and Sexual Health (FLASH) curriculum, Sexual Exploitation chapter. Retrieved from http://www.kingcounty.gov/healthservices/health/personal/famplan/ educators/FLASH.aspx
U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights (1997). Sexual harassment: It’s not academic. Retrieved from http://library.findlaw.com/1997/Aug/27/127484.html
Wertheimer, A. (2003). Consent to sexual relations. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.